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How to Grow Vegetables from Seeds

By Don Logan, Horticulturist, EdenBrothers.ComPlanting a vegetable garden is an age-old tradition that in recent years has become more popular than ever.Growing one’s own food can be a tremendously pleasurable and rewarding endeavor, but like any gardening project, a few basic ground rules are required to achieve desired results. The Big Question: Indoors or Outdoors?Unlike some other more finicky types of seeds, vegetable seeds tend to be a pretty versatile lot, and can usually be successfully planted either indoors or out.For those with limited space or resources, indoor planting is usually the way to go, whilst those fortunate enough to possess a patch of god’s green earth can sow the seeds directly into the soil.In either case, the process is a lot more cut-and-dry than you may think, and it’s also a lot of fun!1- Planting Vegetable Seeds Indoors or "Seed Starting":The process of sowing vegetable seeds indoors is called “seed starting”.To begin with, use a shallow pot with holes in the bottom for drainage.Fill the pot with rich potting soil, and water generously.It’s important not to drown the soil, but rather add just enough water to make it moist.Once the soil is properly prepared, simply press your vegetable seeds into place using the depth chart at the bottom of this page as a guide. Next, as the days pass, watch for germination.The first thing you’re likely to see is what will appear to be a set of small leaves.Continue to water regularly so that the soil and seed mixture stay evenly moist as your plants begin to grow.It’s also a good idea to feed your plants a good water soluble fertilizer every week or so to stimulate growth.After your seedlings have sprouted, you may wish to transplant them to individual pots to prevent overcrowding and/or prepare them for eventual transplanting outdoors.This is accomplished by simply watering the seedlings just prior to removal and gently lifting them out with a spoon or small trowel. Set the seedlings into their new pots, carefully firming the soil around the roots. As usual, continueto water lightly and fertilize as necessary.If you choose to transplant your fledgling plants to an outdoor vegetable garden, be sure to wait until any danger of frost has passed. It’s also recommended that you transplant on a mild and overcast day – or even at night - so as not to “shock” the previously pampered house plants.Just prior to transplanting, water the plants to loosen the soil and then simply tap them out of their pots.Then remove the plant and soil and place it in a previously dug hole, making sure that it is level to the ground. 2- Planting Vegetable Seeds Outdoors or "Direct Sowing":Unless you live in an area where summers are really short, you're better off sowing some types of vegetable seeds directly in a garden. Large-seeded, fast-growing vegetables, such as corn, melons, squash, beans, and peas, usually languish if they're grown in containers for even a day or two too long.Before direct sowing, make sure that the soil has dried out sufficiently before you work it, and be sure that the soil is warm enough for the seeds that you want to plant.If your soil temperature is much below 65°F (18°C), the seeds are likely to rot in the ground before they sprout. The best way to determine the temperature of your soil is to use a soil thermometer, which you can buy at any garden store.You can plant your vegetable seeds in a variety of patterns; though the most common method is row planting. If you have a large area or allotment, you’ll probably find this method the easiest. However, don’t fret if space is at a premium; even if you’re dealing with a just a few square feet, you can still plant in rows.Mark the placement of a row within your garden, and then make a furrow at the correct depth along the row. Some seeds may not sprout, so sow seeds more thickly than you want the final spacing of the crops to be. Thinning rows is less of a chore if you space seeds as evenly as possible. Cover the seeds with fine soil and then firm them in with the back of a hoe to make sure that all the seeds are in contact with the soil. Once your vegetable seeds are sown, make sure to water regularly until they sprout.Soon after seedlings grow their second set of true leaves, you may want to thin them out to avoid overcrowding. When you thin plants, either discard the extra seedlings or move them to another part of your garden.Newly transplanted seedlings need extra attention until they get established. Voila – you’ve done it!Now it’s time kick back and watch Mother Nature do her thing.If you get impatient – or hungry – while waiting for your fresh veggies to grow, please refer to the chart below for approximate harvest times.Vegetable Seeds - Quick Planting Guide Quick general guide to help you determine spacing, planting depth, planting time, harvesting time, etc. Vegetable Indoor Sowing Outdoor Sowing Plants Spacing Thin to Rows Spacing Seed Planting Depth Mini Soil Temp °F Hardiness (see below)* Amount Seed Need / Acre Time to Maturity / Harvest Notes Artichoke 8-10 Weeks before Last Frost Spring 2-3 Ft. no 5-6 Ft. 1" 60 Semi-Hardy 100-150 Days Like well-drained fertile soil. If the soil is too light, add rich organic material. In cold climates, treat as annual. Asparagus 8 Weeks before last frost. Early Spring 1" 18" 3 – 4 Ft. 1-2" Semi-Hardy 3 Lbs. 3rd Year; Yearly thereafter Perennial. Do not harvest the first 2 years to allow plant to establish itself. Apply a heavy mulch in winter Beets no April to Mid August 1" 2-3" 12-18" 1" 40 Hardy 12-16 Lbs. 50 – 70 Days Up to 1/3 of the plant foliage can be harvested for greens. Dig and store in cool place prior to first freeze. Days to maturity may increase with late plantings. Broccoli no April to Mid June 1" 18-24" 24-30" ½-1" 50 Semi-Hardy 1 Lb. 60 - 80 Days Harvest before flower buds start to open. Beware of pests for late Plantings. Brussels Sprouts no Late June 1" 18-24" 24-30" ¼" 50 Hardy 1 Lb. 90 Days Best when harvested small ( 1-2” diameter). Cabbage Feb-March, Into garden in May April to June 1" 18-24" 24-30" ½" 40 Semi-Hardy 1 Lb. 65 - 80 Days PH Soil should be 5.5 or higher. Beware of pests for late Plantings. Carrots no Mid - April to May & July ½" 1-2" 16-24" ½" 40 Hardy 4 Lbs. 70 - 90 Days Sow early, best when harvested young. May have several sequential plantings. Cauliflower Jan.-Feb. Into garden in May Mid-April to Mid-June 1" 30" 24-36" ½" 40 Semi-Hardy
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